Technical Glossary

chemical symbol for gold
banded iron formation
iron-rich rock that shows marked banding, generally of iron-rich minerals and chert or fine-grained quartz
rock composed of sharp-angled fragments embedded in a fine-grained matrix
a mineral composed of calcium carbonate
the lowest grade value that is included in a resource statement. It must comply with JORC requirement 19: "reasonable prospects for eventual economic extraction" the lowest grade, or quality, of mineralised material that qualifies as economically mineable and available in a given deposit. It may be defined on the basis of economic evaluation, or on physical or chemical attributes that define an acceptable product specification
a tabular body of intrusive igneous rock emplaced vertically or at a steeply inclined angle to the horizontal and usually cross-cuts the host rock
epithermal system
formed from hydrothermal solutions within about one kilometre of the Earth's surface in the range of 50-200 °C. Typically found in volcanic rocks; chief metals are gold, silver, copper, lead and zinc
grammes per tonne, equivalent to parts per million
Indicated Resource
that part of a Mineral Resource for which tonnage, densities, shape, physical characteristics, grade and mineral content can be estimated with a reasonable level of confidence. It is based on exploration, sampling and testing information gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill holes. The locations are too widely or inappropriately spaced to confirm geological and/or grade continuity but are spaced closely enough for continuity to be assumed
Inferred Resource
that part of a Mineral Resource for which tonnage, grade and mineral content can be estimated with a low level of confidence. It is inferred from geological evidence and assumed but not verified geological and/or grade continuity. It is based on information gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill holes which may be limited or of uncertain quality and reliability
the Australasian Joint Ore Reserves Committee Code for Reporting of Exploration Results, Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves, 2004 (the "JORC Code" or "the Code"). The Code sets out minimum standards, recommendations and guidelines for Public Reporting in Australasia of Exploration Results, Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves
Mineral Resource
a concentration or occurrence of material of intrinsic economic interest in or on the Earth's crust in such form, quality and quantity that there are reasonable prospects for eventual economic extraction. The location, quantity, grade, geological characteristics and continuity of a Mineral Resource are known, estimated or interpreted from specific geological evidence and knowledge. Mineral Resources are sub-divided, in order of increasing geological confidence, into Inferred, Indicated and Measured categories when reporting under JORC
million troy ounces
orogenic gold deposits
formed from hydrothermal solutions at depths of between 6,000 and 20,000 metres in the temperature range of 300-550 °C. Among the common ore minerals in these deposits are gold, pyrite, chalcopyrite and galena
oxide gold
gold mineralization occurring within the "oxide zone" as free gold
oxide zone
weathered rock occurring at or close to the Earth's surface
troy ounce (= 31.103477 grammes)
a regional metamorphic rock derived from clay-rich sedimentary rocks. Characterized by lustrous, often undulating, well-developed cleavage surfaces, often light silvery-grey in colour
an igneous rock in which relatively large crystals (phenocrysts) constitute 25% or more of the volume and are set in a fine-grained ground mass. Can also be used in conjunction with a mineral/metal name where the rock is rich in that component, e.g. quartz-feldspar porphyry
shear zone
a tabular zone of rock showing evidence of shear stress i.e. a stress field that is acting parallel to a plane passing through any point in the body
a white or colourless crystalline compound, SiO2, occurring abundantly as quartz, sand, flint, agate, and many other minerals and used to manufacture a wide variety of materials, especially glass and concrete
fine-grained sedimentary rock principally composed of silt-grade material, in the range 0.004 to 0.062 millimetres
a chemical sediment or crust, as of porous silica, deposited by a mineral spring
sulphide gold
gold mineralization occurring within the "sulphide zone", often locked within sulphide crystal structure
sulphide zone
un-weathered rock occurring below the "oxide zone" and containing metal-sulphide minerals
tonne (t)
1 million grammes
rock composed mainly of volcanic ash (fragments more than two millimetres in diameter) ejecta
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